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Zambia

Zambia

Constitution of Zambia (1991)

January 132016

PART XIX, Article 265:

“The management and development of Zambia’s environment and natural resources shall be governed by the following principles: … (l) effective participation of people in the development of relevant policies, plans and programmes; and (m) access to environmental information to enable people preserve, protect and conserve the environment.”

PART XIX, Article 266:

“A person has a duty to co-operate with State organs, State institutions and other persons to- (a) maintain a clean, safe and healthy environment; (b) ensure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources; (c) respect, protect and safeguard the environment; and (d) prevent or discontinue an act which is harmful to the environment.”

*These provisions represent amendments to the 1991 Constitution of Zambia and are included in the Constitution of Zambia Amendment Bill (N.A.B. 17/2015).

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Nepal

Nepal

Constitution of Nepal (2015)

September 282015

Part 3, Section 16, Article 1:

“Every person has the right to live in a clean environment.”

Part 4, Article 35(5):

“The State shall make necessary arrangements to maintain clean environment. The State shall give priority to the protection of the environment, and also to the prevention to its further damage due to physical development activities by increasing the awareness of the general public about environmental cleanliness, and the State shall also make arrangements for the special protection of the environment and the rare wildlife. Provision shall be made for the protection of the forest, vegetation and biodiversity, its sustainable use and for equitable distribution of the benefit derived from it…”*

* Nepal’s 2007 Interim Constitution was replaced by the 2015 Constitution of Nepal. The environmental rights provision has been moved to Part 3, Section 30, which now reads: “Right regarding clean environment: (1) Each person shall have the right to live in a healthy and clean environment. (2) The victim of environmental pollution and degradation shall have the right to be compensated by the pollutant as provided for by law. (3) Provided that this Article shall not be deemed to obstruct the making of required legal provisions to strike a balance between environment and development for the use of national development works.”

The statement of public policy has been extended and altered to remove the direct reference to the substantive environmental right. The relevant text, now appearing in Part 4, Section 51(g), reads: “(5) The State shall pursue a policy of making a sustainable use of biodiversity through the conservation and management of forests, fauna and flora, and by minimizing the negative impacts of industrialization and physical development by promoting public awareness on environmental cleanliness and protection…(7) The State shall pursue a policy of adopting appropriate ways of minimizing or stopping negative effects on environment if it is there, or if there is a possibility of such an impact on nature, environment, or biodiversity.”

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Fiji

Fiji

Constitution of the Republic of Fiji (2013)

August 142015

Chapter 2, Article 40:

“(1) Every person has the right to a clean and healthy environment, which includes the right to have the natural world protected for the benefit of present and future generations through legislative and other measures. (2) To the extent that it is necessary, a law or an administrative action taken under a law may limit, or may authorise the limitation of, the rights set out in this section.”

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Haiti

Haiti

The Constitution of Haiti (2012)

April 262015

Title VIII, Chapter 2, Article 253:

“[A]ny practices that might disturb the ecological balance are strictly forbidden.”

Title VIII, Chapter 2, Article 254:

“The State shall organize the enhancement of natural sites to ensure their protection and make them accessible to all.”

Title VIII, Chapter 2, Article 257:

“The law specifies the conditions for protecting flora and fauna, and punishes violations thereof.”

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Guatemala

Guatemala

Constitution of the Republic of Guatemala (1993)

April 262015

Title II, Chapter2, Section 7, Article 97:

“The State …[is]obliged to promote social, economic, and technological development that would prevent the contamination of the environment and maintain the ecological balance. It will issue all the necessary regulations to guarantee that the use of the fauna, flora, land, and water may be realized rationally, obviating their depredation.”

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Ghana

Ghana

Constitution of the Republic of Ghana (1992)

April 262015

Chapter 6, Article 36(9):

“The State shall take appropriate measures needed to protect and safeguard the national environment for posterity; and shall seek cooperation with other states and bodies for purposes of protecting the wider international environment for mankind.”

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Gambia

Gambia

Constitution of the Republic of Gambia (1997)

April 262015

Chapter 20, 218:

“The State and all the people of The Gambia shall strive to protect, preserve and foster the …natural …heritage of The Gambia.”

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Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea

Constitution of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (1995)

April 262015

Part I, Article 6:

“The State shall …ensure the conservation of nature.”

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El Salvador

El Salvador

Constitution of the Republic of El Salvador (1983)

April 262015

Title II, Chapter 2, Section 4, Article 69:

“[T]he State shall control the quality of food products and the environmental conditions that may affect health and well-being.”

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Cuba

Cuba

Constitution of Cuba (2002)

April 262015

Chapter I, Article 27:

“The State protects the environment and natural resources of the country. It recognizes their close link with the sustainable economic and social development for making human life more sensible, and for ensuring the survival, welfare, and security of present and future generations. It corresponds to the competent organs to implement this policy.”

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China

China

Constitution of the People's Republic of China (1993)

April 262015

Chapter I, Article 9:

“The state ensures the rational use of natural resources and protects rare animals and plants.”

Chapter I, Article 26:

“The state protects and improves the living environment and the ecological environment, and prevents and remedies pollution and other public hazards. The state organizes and encourages forestation and the protection of forests.”

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Cambodia

Cambodia

Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia (1993)

April 262015

Chapter V, Article 59:

“The State shall protect the environment and balance of abundant natural resources and establish a precise plan of management of land, water, air, wind, geology, ecological system, mines, energy, petrol and gas, rocks and sand, gems, forests and forestry products, wildlife, fish and aquatic resources.”

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Burundi

Burundi

Burundi's Constitution of 2005

April 262015

Title II, Article 5:

“The State shall ensure the proper management and rational use of natural resources while preserving the environment and conservation of these resources for future generations..”

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh

The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (1972)

April 262015

Part II, Article 18(a):

“The State shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to preserve and safeguard the natural resources, biodiversity, wetlands, forests and wild life for the present and future citizens.”

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Andorra

Andorra

The Constitution of the Principality of Andorra (1993)

April 232015

Title II, Chapter V, Article 31:

“The State has the task of ensuring the rational use of the soil and of all the natural resources, so as to guarantee a befitting quality of life for all.”

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (2004)

April 232015

Chapter 1, Article 15:

“The State is obligated to adopt necessary measures for … proper exploitation of natural resources and the improvement of ecological conditions.”

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Bahrain

Bahrain

Constitution of the Kingdom of Bahrain (2002)

February 272015

Chapter II, Article 9, Section H:

“The State shall take the necessary measures for the protection of the environment and the conservation of wildlife.”

Chapter II, Article 11:

“All natural wealth and resources are State property. The State shall safeguard them and exploit them properly, while observing the requirements of the security of the State and of the national economy.”

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Egypt

Egypt

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt (2014)

July 222014

Chapter II, Section II, Article 46:

“Every individual has the right to live in a healthy, sound and balanced environment. Its protection is a national duty. The state is committed to taking the necessary measures to preserve it, avoid harming it, rationally use its natural resources to ensure that sustainable development is achieved, and guarantee the rights of future generations thereto.”

Chapter II, Section II, Article 46:

“The State shall take necessary measures to protect and ensure not to harm the environment; ensure a rational use of natural resources so as to achieve sustainable development; and guarantee the right of future generations thereto.”

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Morocco

Morocco

The Constitution of Morocco (2011)

July 172014

Title II, Article 31:

“The State, the public establishments and the territorial collectivities work for the mobilization of all the means available [disponibles] to facilitate the equal access of the citizens [feminine] and the citizens [masculine] to conditions that permit their enjoyment of the right:

to the access to water and to a healthy environment.”

 

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Tunisia

Tunisia

Constitution of the Tunisian Republic (2014)

July 172014

Title II, Article 45:

“The state guarantees the right to a healthy and balanced environment and the right to participate in the protection of the climate.The state shall provide the necessary means to eradicate pollution of the environment.”

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South Sudan

South Sudan

The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan (2011)

July 172014

Part III, Chapter I, Article 41, Section 1:

“Every person or community shall have the right to a clean and healthy
environment. “

Part III, Chapter I, Article 41, Section 4:

“All levels of government shall develop energy policies that will ensure that the basic needs of the people are met while protecting and preserving the environment.”

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Jamaica

Jamaica

Constitution of Jamaica (2011)

July 132014

Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms (2011), Chapter III, Section 12:

“The right to enjoy a healthy and productive environment free from the threat of injury or damage from environmental abuse and degradation of the ecological heritage.”

*This provision in the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms was grafted onto the Constitution of Jamaica (1962) in 2011, when it gained
the status of a constitutional law.”

Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms (2011), Chapter III, Section 12:

“Parliament shall pass no law and no organ of the State shall take any action which abrogates, abridges or infringes those rights.”

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Dominican Republic

Dominican Republic

Constitution of the Dominican Republic (2010)

July 132014

Title II, Chapter I, Section II, Article 61:

“Every person has the right to an integral health. In consequence,The State must see to the protection of the health of all persons, the access to potable water, the improvement of nutrition, of the health services, the hygienic conditions, the healthy environmental, as well as to procure the means for the prevention and treatment of all diseases, assuring the access to medicines of quality and providing medical and hospital assistance gratuitously to those who require it.”

Article 67(5):

“The public powers shall prevent and control the factors of environmental degradation [deterioro], will impose the legal sanctions, [and] the objective responsibility for damages caused to the environment and to the natural resources and will require reparation [of] them. Likewise, they will cooperate with other nations in the protection of the ecosystems along the maritime and terrestrial frontier.”

Title II, Chapter I, Section IV, Article 67:

“The prevention of pollution, [and] the protection and maintaining of the environment for the benefit of the present and future generations, constitute duties of the State.” Article 67(4): “In the contracts celebrated by the State or in the permits that it grants that involve the use and exploitation of the natural resources, the obligation to preserve the ecological equilibrium, the access to technology and its transfer, as well as the reestablishment of the environment to its natural state, if it is altered [as a] result [,] will be considered [as] included.”

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France

France

Constitution of the French Fifth Republic (1958)

July 132014

Charter for the Environment (2004), Article 7:

“Everyone has the right, subject to the conditions and within the limits defined by the law, to have access to the information relating to the environment held by the public authorities…”

“Everyone has the right, subject to the conditions and within the limits defined by the law … to participate in the making of public decisions which have an impact on the environment.”

Charter for the Environment(2005), Article 1:

“Everyone has the right to live in a stable environment which respects health.”

*This provision in the Charter of the Environment was grafted onto the
Constitution of the French Fifth Republic (1958) in 2005, when it gained
the status of a constitutional law.

Charter for the Environment (2004), Article 9:

“Research and innovation shall assist the preservation and utilization of the environment”

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Kenya

Kenya

Constitution of Kenya (2010)

July 132014

Chapter IV, Part II, Article 42:

“Every person has the right to a clean and healthy environment, which includes the right a) to have the environment protected for the benefit of present and future generations through legislative and other measures, particularly those contemplated in Article 69 …”

“… (b) to have obligations relating to the environment fulfilled under Article 70.” [Article 70 provides that any person may apply to a court for redress of damage to the environment.]

Chapter V, Part II, Article 69:

“The State shall— (a) ensure sustainable exploitation, utilisation, management and conservation of the environment and natural resources, and ensure the equitable sharing of the accruing benefits; (b) work to achieve and maintain a tree cover of at least ten per cent of the land area of Kenya; (c) protect and enhance intellectual property in, and indigenous knowledge of, biodiversity and the genetic resources of the communities; (d) encourage public participation in the management, protection and conservation of the environment; (e) protect genetic resources and biological diversity; (f) establish systems of environmental impact assessment, environmental audit and monitoring of the environment; (g) eliminate processes and activities that are likely to endanger the environment; and (h) utilise the environment and natural resources for the benefit of the people of Kenya….”

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Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan

Constitution of Turkmenistan (2008)

July 122014

Section II, Article 36:

“Everyone has the right to favorable environment.The State supervises the management of natural resources in order to protect and improve living conditions, as well as environmental protection and regeneration.”

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Kosovo

Kosovo

Constitution of The Republic of Kosovo (2008)

July 122014

Chapter I, Article 7:

“The constitutional order of the Republic of Kosovo is based on the principles of freedom, peace, democracy, equality, respect for human rights and freedoms and the rule of law, non-discrimination, the right to property, the protection of environment, social justice, pluralism, separation of state powers, and a market economy.”

Articles 52(2) and (3):

“2. Everyone should be provided an opportunity to be heard by public institutions and have their opinions considered on issues that impact the environment in which they live.  3. The impact on the environment shall be considered by public institutions in their decision making processes.”

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Maldives

Maldives

Constitution of the Republic of Maldives (2008)

July 122014

Chapter I, Article 23

“Every citizen has the following rights pursuant to this Constitution, and the State undertakes to achieve the progressive realization of these rights by reasonable measures within its ability and resources […] a healthy and ecologically balanced environment. “

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Serbia

Serbia

Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (2006)

July 122014

Part II, Section 2, Article 74:

“Everyone shall have the right to healthy environment . . . .”

“. . . and the right to timely and full information about the state of environment.”

Part II, Section 2, Article 74:

“Everyone, especially the Republic of Serbia and autonomous provinces, shall be accountable for the protection of environment.”

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Montenegro

Montenegro

Constitution of Montenegro (2007)

July 122014

Part 2, Article 23:

“Everyone shall have the right to a sound environment…”

“… Everyone shall have the right to receive timely and full information about the status of the environment, to influence the decision-making regarding the issues of importance for the environment, and to legal protection of these rights…”

“… Everyone, the state in particular, shall be bound to preserve and improve the environment.”

Part 2, Article 23:

“Everyone, the state in particular, shall be bound to preserve and improve the environment.”

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Colombia

Colombia

Constitution of the Republic of Colombia (1991)

July 112014

Title II, Chapter 3, Article 79:

“Every individual has the right to enjoy a healthy environment. . . .”

“. . . The law will guarantee the community’s participation in the decisions that may affect it. . . .”

“. . . It is the duty of the state to protect the diversity and integrity of the environment, to conserve the areas of special ecological importance, and to foster education for the achievement of these ends.”

Title II, Chapter 3, Article 79:

“It is the duty of the State to protect the diversity and integrity of the environment, to conserve the areas of special ecological importance, and to foster education for the achievement of these ends.”

Title II, Chapter 3, Article 80:

“The State will plan the handling and use of natural resources in order to guarantee their sustainable development, conservation, restoration, or replacement. Additionally, it will have to caution and control the factors of environmental deterioration, impose legal sanctions, and demand the repair of any damage caused. In the same way, it will cooperate with other nations in the protection of the ecosystems located in the border areas.”

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Armenia

Armenia

Constitution of the Republic of Armenia (1995)

July 112014

Chapter 2, Article 33.2:

“Everyone shall have the right to live in an environment favorable to his/her health and well-being, and shall be obliged to, individually or as a group, protect and improve it…”

“… The public officials shall be held responsible for the concealment of or denial of access to information on environmental issues.”

Chapter 1, Article 10:

“The State shall ensure the protection and reproduction of the environment and the rational utilization of natural resources.”

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2005)

July 112014

Title II, Chapter 3, Article 53:

“All persons have the right to a healthy environment that is favorable to their development.”

Title II, Chapter 3, Article 53:

““The State sees to the protection of the environment and the health of the population.”

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Iraq

Iraq

Constitution of the Republic of Iraq (2005)

July 112014

Section 2, Chapter 1, Article 33:

“First: Every individual has the right to live in safe environmental conditions. Second: The State shall undertake the protection and preservation of the environment and its biological diversity.”

Section 2, Chapter 1, Article 33(2):

“The state guarantees protection and preservation of the environment and biological diversity.”

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Sudan

Sudan

The Interim National Constitution of the Republic of the Sudan (2005)

July 112014

Part 1, Chapter II, Article 11:

“The people of the Sudan shall have the right to a clean and diverse environment; the State and the citizens have the duty to preserve and promote the country’s biodiversity.”

Part 1, Chapter II, Article 13:

“The State shall promote public health, encourage sports and protect the natural environment, its purity and its natural balance, to ensure safe, sustainable development for the benefit of all future generations.”

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Brazil

Brazil

Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (1988)

July 112014

Title II, Chapter I, Article 5, Paragraph LXXIII:

“[A]ny citizen has standing to bring a popular action to annul an act injurious to the public patrimony or the patrimony of an entity in which the State participates … to the environment ….”

Title II, Chapter IV:

“Require, as provided by law, a prior environmental impact study, which shall be made public, for installation of works or activities that may cause significant degradation of the environment.”

Title VIII, Chapter VI, Article 225:

“All have the right to an ecologically balanced environment, which is an asset of common use and essential to a healthy quality of life, and both the Government and the community shall have the duty to defend and preserve it for present and future generations.”

Title VII, Chapter VI, Article 225:

“In order to ensure the effectiveness of this right, it is incumbent upon the Government to:
I – preserve and restore the essential ecological processes and provide for the ecological treatment of species and ecosystems;
II – preserve the diversity and integrity of the genetic patrimony of the country and to control entities engaged in research and manipulation of genetic material;
III – define, in all units of the Federation, territorial spaces and their components which are to receive special protection. any alterations and suppressions being allowed only by means of law, and any use which may harm the integrity of the attributes which justify their protection being forbidden;
IV – require, in the manner prescribed by law, for the installation of works and activities which may potentially cause significant degradation of the environment, a prior environmental impact study, which shall be made public;
V – control the production, sale and use of techniques, methods or substances which represent a risk to life, the quality of life and the environment;
VI – promote environment education in all school levels and public awareness of the need to preserve the environment;
VII – protect the fauna and the flora, with prohibition, in the manner prescribed by law, of all practices which represent a risk to their ecological function, cause the extinction of species or subject animals to cruelty.
Paragraph 2 – Those who exploit mineral resources shall be required to restore the degraded environment, in accordance with the technical solutions demanded by the competent public agency, as provided by law.
Paragraph 3 – Procedures and activities considered as harmful to the environment shall subject the infractors, be they individuals or legal entities, to penal and administrative sanctions, without prejudice to the obligation to repair the damages caused.
Paragraph 4 – The Brazilian Amazonian Forest, the Atlantic Forest, the Serra do Mar, the Pantanal Mato-Grossense and the coastal zone are part of the national patrimony, and they shall be used, as provided by law, under conditions which ensure the preservation of the environment, therein included the use of mineral resources.
Paragraph 5 – The unoccupied lands or lands seized by the states through discriminatory actions which are necessary to protect the natural ecosystems are inalienable.
Paragraph 6 – Power plants operated by nuclear reactor shall have their location defined in federal law and may not otherwise be installed.”

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Central African Republic

Central African Republic

Constitution of the Central African Republic (2004)

July 112014

Title I, Article 9:

“The Republic guarantees to each citizen the right to work, to a clean environment, to rest and to leisure subject to the requirements of national development.”

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Mozambique

Mozambique

Constitution of the Republic of Mozambique (2004)

July 92014

Title III, Chapter IV, Article 81:

“1. All citizens shall have the right to popular action in accordance with the law, either personally or through associations for defending the interests in question. 2. The right of popular action shall consist of: (a) the right to claim for the injured party or parties such compensation as they are entitled to; (b) The right to advocate the prevention, termination or judicial prosecution of offenses against the public health, consumer rights, environmental conservation and cultural heritage.”

Title III, Chapter IV, Article 90(1):

“All citizens shall have the right to live in a balanced environment and shall have the duty to defend it.”

Title III, Chapter V, Article 90(2):

“The State and the local authorities, with collaboration from associations for environmental protection, shall adopt policies to protect the environment and shall promote the rational use of all natural resources.”

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria

Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria (1991)

July 92014

Chapter I, Article 15:

“The Republic of Bulgaria ensures the protection and conservation of the environment, the sustenance of animals and the maintenance of their diversity, and the sensible utilization of the country’s natural wealth and resources.”

*This provision was translated as “The Republic of Bulgaria shall ensure the protection and reproduction of the environment, the conservation of living Nature in all its variety, and the sensible utilization of the country’s natural and other resources” in 2007.

Chapter I, Article 15:

“[The State must] ensure the protection and conservation of the environment, the sustenance of animals and the maintenance of their diversity, and the sensible utilization of the country’s natural wealth and resources.”

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Ukraine

Ukraine

Constitution Of Ukraine (2004)

July 92014

Chapter II, Article 50:

“Everyone has the right to an environment that is safe for life and health, and to compensation for damages inflicted through the violation of this right. . . .”

“. . . Everyone is guaranteed the right of free access to information about the environmental situation, the quality of food and consumer goods, and also the right to disseminate such information. No one shall make such information secret.”

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Guyana

Guyana

Constitution of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana (1980)

July 92014

Part I, Chapter II, Article 25:

“Every citizen has a duty to participate in activities designed to improve the environment and protect the health of the nation.”

Part I, Chapter II, Article 36:

“In the interests of the present and future generations, the State will protect and make rational use of its land, mineral and water resources, as well as its fauna and flora, and will take all appropriate measures to conserve and improve the environment.”

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Costa Rica

Costa Rica

Constitution of Costa Rica (1949)

July 92014

Title V, Article 50:

“The State shall procure the greatest welfare of all inhabitants of the country, organizing and promoting production and the most adequate
distribution of wealth.  Every person has the right to a healthy and ecologically balanced environment,…”

“… being therefore entitled to denounce any acts that may infringe said right and claim redress for the damage caused.
The State shall guarantee, defend and preserve that right.  The Law shall establish the appropriate responsibilities and penalties.”

*As amended by Article 1°, Law No. 7412, June 3, 1994

Title V, Article 50:

“Every person has the right to a healthy and ecologically balanced environment. The State shall guarantee, defend and preserve this right. The law will determine the corresponding responsibilities and sanctions…”

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Côte d’Ivoire

Côte d’Ivoire

Constitution of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire(2000)

July 92014

Chapter I, Title I, Article 19

“The right to a healthy environment is recognized to all.”

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Georgia

Georgia

The Constitution of Georgia (2003)

July 92014

Chapter II, Section 3, Article 37:

“Everyone has the right to live in a healthy environment and enjoy natural and cultural surroundings. Everyone is obliged to protect the natural and cultural surroundings.”

Chapter II, Section 3, Article 37(5):

“A person shall have the right to receive complete, objective and timely information on the state of his or her working and living environment.”

Chapter II, Section 3, Article 37(4):

“With the view of ensuring safe environment, in accordance with ecological and economic interests of society, with due regard to the interests of the current and future generations the state shall guarantee the protection of environment and the rational use of nature.”

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Hungary

Hungary

Fundamental Law of Hungary (2011)

July 92014

“Freedom and Responsibility,” Section 1, Article 21:

“Hungary shall recognise and enforce the right of every person to a healthy environment.”

“Freedom and Responsibility,” Section 1, Article 20:

“Every person shall have the right to physical and mental health. (2) Hungary shall promote the exercise of the right set out in Paragraph (1) by ensuring that its agriculture remains free from any genetically modified organism, by providing access to healthy food and drinking water …and by ensuring environmental protection.”

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Kyrgyz Republic

Kyrgyz Republic

Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic (2010)

July 92014

Chapter 2, Section 1, Article 35(1):

“[C]itizens of the Kyrgyz Republic have the right to a favorable and healthy natural environment and to compensation for the damage caused to health or property by the activity in the area of nature exploitation.”

Chapter 2, Section 1, Article 48:

“Everyone shall have the right to environment favorable for life and health.”

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Romania

Romania

Constitution of Romania (2009)

July 92014

Title II, Section I, Article 35:

“The State recognizes the right of every person to a healthy, well-preserved and balanced environment.”

Title II, Section I, Article 35:

“The State shall acknowledge the right of every person to a healthy, well preserved and balanced environment. (2) The State shall provide the legislative framework for the exercise of such right. (3) Natural and legal entities shall be bound to protect and improve the environment.”

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Bolivia

Bolivia

Political Constitution of the State (2009)

July 92014

Title II, Chapter 5, Section I, Article 33:

“Everyone has the right to a healthy, protected, and balanced environment. The exercise of this right must be granted to individuals and collectives of present and future generations, as well as to other living things, so they may develop in a normal and permanent way..”

Title II, Chapter 5, Section I, Article 34:

“Any person, in his own right or on behalf of a collective, is authorized to take legal actions in defense of environmental rights, without prejudice to the obligation of public institutions to act on their own in the face of attacks on the environment.”

Title II, Chapter 5, Section I, Article 9:

“The following are essential purposes and functions of the State, in addition to those established in the Constitution and the law: To promote and guarantee the responsible and planned use of natural resources, and to stimulate their industrialization through the development and strengthening of the productive base in its different dimensions and levels, as well as to preserve the environment for the welfare of present and future generations.”

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Timor-Leste

Timor-Leste

Constitution of the Democratic Republic of East Timor/Timor-Leste (2002)

July 92014

Title II, Section 1, Article 61:

“All have the right to a humane, healthy, and ecologically balanced environment and the duty to protect it and improve it for the benefit of the future generations.”

Part 1, Section 6:

“The fundamental objectives of the State shall be: To protect the environment and to preserve natural resources.”

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Greece

Greece

Constitution of Greece (2002)

July 92014

Part 2, Section 1, Article 24:

“The protection of the natural and cultural environment constitutes a duty of the State and a right of every person. The State is bound to adopt special preventive or repressive measures for the preservation of the environment in the context of the principle of sustainable development. Matters pertaining to the protection of forests and forest expanses in general shall be regulated by law. The compilation of a forest registry constitutes an obligation of the State. Alteration of the use of forests and forest expanses is prohibited, except where agricultural development or other uses imposed for the public interest prevail for the benefit of the national economy.”

Part 2, Section 1, Article 24:

“The protection of the natural and cultural environment constitutes a duty of the State.”

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Indonesia

Indonesia

Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (2002)

July 92014

Chapter X, Section 1, Article 28H:

“Every person shall have the right to live in physical and spiritual prosperity, to have a home and to enjoy a good and healthy environment, and shall have the right to obtain medical care.”

Chapter X, Section 13, Article 33:

“The land and the waters as well as the natural riches therein are to be controlled by the state to be exploited to the greatest benefit of the people. (4): The organization of the national economy shall be based on economic democracy that upholds the principles of solidarity, efficiency along with fairness, sustainability, keeping the environment in perspective, self sufficiency, and that is concerned as well with balanced progress and with the unity of the national economy.”

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Togo

Togo

Constitution of the IVth Republic (1992)

July 92014

Title II, Subtitle I, Article 41:

“Every person has the right to a healthy environment.”

Title II, Subtitle I, Article 41:

“The State shall take care of the protection of the environment.”

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Turkey

Turkey

The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (1982)

July 92014

Chapter 3, Title VIII, Section A, Article 56:

“Everyone has the right to live in a healthy, balanced environment.”

Part II, Chapter 3, Section 3, Part B, Article 44:

“The State shall take the necessary measures to maintain and develop efficient land cultivation, to prevent its loss through erosion, and to provide land to farmers with insufficient land of their own, or no land.”

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Congo

Congo

Constitution of the Republic of Congo (2001)

July 82014

Title II, Article 35:

“Every citizen has the right to a healthy, satisfying and lasting environment and has the duty to defend it.”

The State sees to the protection and to the conservation of the environment.”

Title II, Article 53:

“The State sees to the protection of the environment and the health of the population.”

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Senegal

Senegal

Constitution of the Republic of Senegal (2001)

July 82014

Title 1, Article 8:

“The Republic of Senegal guarantees to all citizens the fundamental individual freedoms, the economic and social rights as well as the collective rights. These freedoms and rights are notably:

right to a healthy [sain] environment
…”

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Croatia

Croatia

Constitution of the Republic of Croatia (2001)

July 82014

Chapter 3, Article 69:

“Everyone shall have the right to a healthy life.

The State shall ensure conditions for a healthy environment.

Everyone shall be bound, within their powers and activities, to pay special attention to the protection of public health, nature and environment.”

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Czech Republic

Czech Republic

Constitution of the Czech Republic (2001)

July 82014

Chapter 4, Section I, Article 35:

“Everyone has the right to a favorable environment.”

*The text of the constitutional environmental right above comes from The
Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms, which the Parliament
declared to be a constitutional law in 1991. The Constitution of the Czech
Republic later proclaimed the Charter “an integral component of the
constitutional system” in 1993.

Chapter 4, Section I, Article 35(2):

“Everybody is entitled to timely and complete information about the state of the environment and natural resources.”

Chapter 1, Article 27:

“The State protects the environment and natural resources of the country. It recognizes their close link with the sustainable economic and social development for making human life more sensible, and for ensuring the survival, welfare, and security of present and future generations. It corresponds to the competent organs to implement this policy.”

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Mexico

Mexico

Political Constitution of the United Mexican States (1999)

July 82014

Chapter 1, Article 4:

“Every person has the right to live in an environment that is adequate for his or her development and well-being.”

*This provision was added to Article 4 on June 28th, 1999.

Title 1, Chapter 1, Article 27:

“The Nation shall … [take] necessary measures …to prevent the destruction of natural resources.”

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Mongolia

Mongolia

The Constitution of Mongolia (2001)

July 82014

Chapter 2, Section II, Article 16:

“The citizens of Mongolia shall be guaranteed to exercise: (II) The right to a healthy and safe environment, and to be protected against environmental pollution and ecological imbalance.”

Chapter 1, Article 6(1):

“The land, its subsoil, forests, water, fauna and flora and other natural resources shall be subject to national sovereignty and State protection.”

Chapter 3, Part III, Article 38(2),(4):

“Carrying out the State laws and directing the economic, social and cultural development of the country, the Government shall exercise the following powers …To undertake measures on the protection of the environment and on the rational use and restoration of natural resources …”

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Slovakia

Slovakia

Constitution of the Slovak Republic (2001)

July 82014

Chapter 6, Section 1, Article 44:

“Every person has the right to a favorable environment.”

Chapter 6, Section 1, Article 44:

“The State sees to the economical use of the natural resources and the economical balance and active care of the life environment and safeguards the protection of certain kinds of plants and freely living animals.”

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Venezuela

Venezuela

Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (1999)

July 42014

Title III, Chapter IX, Article 127:

“It is the right and duty of each generation to protect and maintain the environment for its own benefit and that of the world of the future. Everyone has the right, individually and collectively, to enjoy life and a safe, healthy and ecologically balanced environment. The State shall protect the environment, biological and genetic diversity, ecological processes, national parks and natural monuments, and other areas of particular ecological importance. the genome of a living being shall not be patentable, and the field shall be regulated by the law relating to the principles of bioethics. It is a fundamental duty of the State, with the active participation of society, to ensure that the population develops in an environment free of contamination, in which the air, water, soil, coasts, the climate, the ozone layer and living species receive special protection, in accordance with law.”

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Latvia

Latvia

Constitution of the Republic of Latvia (1998)

July 42014

Chapter VIII, Article 115:

“The State shall protect the right of everyone to live in a benevolent environment by providing information about environmental conditions …”

“… and by promoting the preservation and improvement of the environment. “

Chapter VIII, Article 115:

“The State shall protect the right of everyone to live in a benevolent environment by … by promoting the preservation and improvement of the environment.”

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Macedonia

Macedonia

Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia (1991)

July 42014

Part II,Section II, Article 43:

“Everyone has the right to a healthy environment to live in “

Part I, Article 8:

Requiring “proper urban and rural planning to promote a congenial human environment, as well as ecological protection and development.”

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Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso

The Constitution of Burkina Faso (1991)

July 32014

Title 1, Chapter 4, Article 29:

“The right to a healthy environment is recognized; the protection, the defense and the promotion of the environment are a duty for all.”

Title 1, Chapter 4, Article 30:

“Every citizen has the right to initiate an action or to join a collective action under the form of a petition against the acts … affecting the environment or the cultural or historic patrimony.”

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Seychelles

Seychelles

Constitution of the Republic of Seychelles (1993)

July 32014

Chapter 3, Section 38:

“The State recognises the right of every person to live in and enjoy a clean, healthy and ecologically balanced environment.”

Chapter 3, Section 38:

“With a view to ensuring the effective realisation of this right the state undertakes – (a) to take measures to promote the protection, preservation and improvement of the environment; (b) to ensure a sustainable socio-economic development of Seychelles by a judicious use and management of the resources of Seychelles; (c) to promote public awareness of the need to protect, preserve and improve the environment.”

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Chad

Chad

Constitution of the Republic of Chad (1996)

July 32014

Title 2, Chapter 1, Article 47:

“Every person has the right to a healthy environment.”

Title 2, Chapter 1, Article 48:

“The State and the Decentralized Territorial Collectivities must see to the protection of the environment.”

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Cameroon

Cameroon

Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon (1996)

July 32014

Preamble:

“Every person shall have a right to a healthy environment. The protection of the environment shall be the duty of every citizen. The State shall ensure the protection and improvement of the environment.”

Preamble:

“The State shall ensure the protection and improvement of the environment.”

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Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

The Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic (1995)

June 302014

Second Chapter, Section III, Article 39:

“Every Person shall have the right to live in healthy environment.”

*This provision was moved to Second Section, Chapter 3, Article 39(I) in the 2009 Constitution of the Azerbaijan Republic.

Second Section, Chapter III, Article 39 (II):

“Everyone has the right to gain information about true ecological situation and to get compensation for damage done to his/her health and property because of violation of ecological requirements.” (2009)

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Uganda

Uganda

Constitution of the Republic of Uganda (1995)

June 302014

Chapter 4, Article 39:

“Every Ugandan has a right to a clean and healthy environment.”

Preamble, XIII:

“The State shall protect important natural resources, including land, water, wetlands, minerals, oil, fauna and flora on behalf of the people of Uganda.” (i) The State shall promote sustainable development and public awareness of the need to manage land, air, water resources in a balanced and sustainable manner for the present and future generations. (ii) The utilization of the natural resources of Uganda shall be managed in such a way as to meet the development and environmental needs of present and future generations of Ugandans; and in particular, the State shall take all possible measures to prevent or minimise damage and destruction to land, air and water resources resulting from pollution or other causes. (iii)The State shall promote and implement energy policies that will ensure that people’s basic needs and those of environmental preservation are met..”

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Finland

Finland

Constitution of Finland (1995)

June 272014

Chapter 2, Section 20:

“Nature and its biodiversity, the environment and the national heritage are the responsibility of everyone. The public authorities shall endeavour to guarantee for everyone the right to a healthy environment and . . . .”

“. . . for everyone the possibility to influence the decisions that concern their own living environment.”

Chapter 2, Section 20:

“The public authorities shall endeavour to guarantee for everyone the right to a healthy environment and . . . .”

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Norway

Norway

Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway (1990)

June 262014

Part E, Article 110b:

“Every person has a right to an environment that is conducive to health and to natural surroundings whose productivity and diversity are preserved…”

“…In order to safeguard their right [to a healthy environment]” [citizens are] “to be informed of the state of the natural environment and of the effects of any encroachments on nature that are planned or commenced.”

Part E, Article 110b:

“Natural resources should be made use of on the basis of comprehensive long-term considerations whereby this right will be safeguarded for future generations as well. The State authorities shall issue further provisions for the implementation of these principles.”

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Argentina

Argentina

Constitution of the Argentine Nation (1994)

June 32014

Part I, Chapter II, Section 41:

“All inhabitants are entitled to a healthful and balanced environment fit for human development in order that productive activities shall meet present needs without without endangering those of future generations; and shall have the duty to preserve it.”

Part I, Chapter II, Section 41:

“The authorities shall provide for environmental information and education.”

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Belgium

Belgium

The Belgian Constitution (1994)

June 32014

Title II, Article 23:

“These rights include notably:…4° the right to enjoy the protection of a healthy environment.”

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia

Constitution of The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (1994)

March 22014

Chapter Three, Article 44, Section 1:

“All persons have the right to a clean and healthy environment.”

Chapter Ten, Article 92, Section 3:

“People have the right to full consultation and to the expression of views in the planning and implementations of environmental policies and projects that affect them directly.”

Chapter Ten, Article 92, Section 1:

“Government shall endeavor to ensure that all Ethiopians live in a clean and healthy environment.” Chapter 10, Article 92(4): “Government and citizens shall have the duty to protect the environment.” Chapter 10, Article 92(2): “The design and implementation of programmes and projects of development shall not damage or destroy the environment.”

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Moldova

Moldova

Constitution of the Republic of Moldova (1994)

March 22014

Title II, Chapter 1, Article 37, Section 1:

“Every human being has the right to live in an environment that is ecologically safe for life and
health, to obtain healthy food products and harmless household appliances.”

Title II, Chapter 1, Article 37, Section 2:

“The State guarantees every person the right of free access to truthful information regarding the state of the natural environment, the living and working conditions and the quality of food products and household goods.”

Title IV, Chapter 1, Article 126, Section 2:

“The State must ensure: the restoration and protection of the environment and the maintenance of ecological balance.”

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Belarus

Belarus

Constitution of the Republic of Belarus (1994)

March 22014

Section II, Article 46:

“Everyone is entitled to pleasant surroundings and to compensation for damage caused by violations of this right.”

Section II, Article 34:

“Citizens are guaranteed the right to receive, store and disseminate complete, reliable, and timely information … on the state of the environment.”

Section II, Article 34:

“State bodies, public associations and officials shall provide citizens of the Republic of Belarus with an opportunity to familiarise themselves with materials that affect their rights and legitimate interests.”

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Ecuador

Ecuador

Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador (1984)

March 22014

Part 1, Title II, Section I, Article 19(2):

“Without prejudice to other rights necessary for the full moral and material development that derives from the nature of the person, the State guarantees: … The right to live in a pollution free environment. It is the duty of the State to ensure that this right is not affected and to promote the conservation of nature. The law establishes restrictions on the exercise of certain rights and freedoms, to protect the environment;”*

*Ecuador’s 1984 constitution was amended in 2008. Among the amendments ratified were a series of provisions relating to environmental protection, including the world’s first “Rights of Nature.” In particular, Title II, Chapter Two, Section Two, Article 14 states that “The right of the population to live in a healthy and ecologically balanced environment that guarantees sustainability and the good way of living (sumak kawsay), is recognized.”

Article 71:

“All persons, communities, peoples and nations can call upon public authorities to enforce the rights of nature.”

Part 1, Title II, Section II, Article 15:

“The State shall promote, in the public and private sectors, the use of environmentally clean technologies and nonpolluting and low-impact alternative sources of energy. Energy sovereignty shall not be achieved to the detriment of food sovereignty nor shall it affect the right to water.”

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Russian Federation

Russian Federation

Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993)

February 242014

Section One, Chapter 2, Article 42:

“Everyone shall have the right to a favorable environment…”

“… [and] reliable information on the state of the environment and compensation for damage caused to his (her) health and property by violations of environmental laws.”

Section One, Chapter 1, Article 9:

“Land and other natural resources shall be utilized and protected in the Russian Federation as the basis of life and activity of the people living in corresponding territories.”

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South Africa

South Africa

Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1993)

February 232014

Chapter 3, Section 29:

“Every person shall have the right to an environment which is not detrimental to his or her health or well-being.”

*This environmental rights provision was moved to Chapter 2, Article 24 in the 1996 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, where it was expanded to read: “Everyone has the right – (a) to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being; and (b) to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures that – (i) prevent pollution and ecological degradation; (ii) promote conservation; and (iii) secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.”

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Angola

Angola

Constitutional Law of the Republic of Angola (1992)

February 182014

Title II, Article 24, Section 1:

“All citizens shall have the right to live in a healthy and unpolluted environment.”

*This provision was moved to Article 39, Section 1 in the 2010 Constitution of the Republic of Angola, which added the phrase “…and the duty to defend and preserve it.”

Title II, Article 24, Section 2:

“The State shall take the requisite measures to protect the environment and national species of flora and fauna throughout the national territory and maintain ecological balance.”

*This provision was moved to Article 39, Section 2 in the 2010 Constitution of the Republic of Angola, which added the phrase “ensure the correct location of economic activities and the rational development and use of all natural resources, within the context of sustainable development, respect for the rights of future generations and the preservation of species. .”

Article 39, Section 3:

“Acts that endanger or damage conservation of the environment shall be punishable by law.”

Article 43:

“Citizens shall have the right to contest and take legal action against any acts that violate their rights as set out in the present Constitutional Law and other legislation.” 

*This provision was moved to Article 74 (Right to popular action) in the 2010 Constitution of the Republic of Angola, which changed the phrase to state, “Every citizen, either individually or through associations representing specific interests, shall have the right to take legal action in the cases and under the terms established by law, with the aim of annulling acts which are harmful to … the environment.”

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Cape Verde

Cape Verde

Constitution of the Republic of Cape Verde (1992)

February 182014

Part II, Title III, Article 70, Section 1:

“Everyone shall have the right to a healthy life and ecologically balanced environment and the duty to defend and conserve it.”

Part I, Title I, Article 7(j):

“State duties include those “To protect the land, nature, natural resources, and environment, as well as the historical-cultural and artistic national heritage ….”

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Mali

Mali

Constitution of the Republic of Mali (1992)

February 182014

Title I, Article 15:

“Every person has the right to a healthy environment. The protection, the defense of the environment and the promotion of the quality of life are a duty for all and for the State.”

Title I, Article 15:

“The protection, defense and promotion of the environment are an obligation …for the State.”

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Niger

Niger

Constitution of the Republic of Niger (1992)

February 182014

Title II, Article 28:

“Every person has the right to a healthy environment. The state shall ensure the protection of the environment.”

Title II, Article 35:

“The State has the obligation to protect the environment in the interest of present and future generations.”

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Paraguay

Paraguay

Constitution of the Republic of Paraguay (1992)

February 182014

Title I, Section II, Article 7:

“Everyone has the right to live in a healthy, ecologically balanced environment.”

Title I, Section II, Article 8:

“A law will define and establish sanctions for ecological crimes. Any damage to the environment will entail an obligation to restore and to pay for damages.”

Title I, Section II, Article 7:

“The preservation, recovery, and improvement of the environment, as well as efforts to reconcile these goals with comprehensive human development, are priority objectives …”

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Slovenia

Slovenia

Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia (1991)

February 182014

Title III, Article 72:

“All persons shall have the right to a healthy living environment in accordance with the law. The state shall ensure a healthy living environment. For this purpose the law shall define the conditions and means for managing economic and other activities.”

Title III, Article 72:

“The state promotes a healthy living environment. To this end, the conditions and manner in which economic and other activities are pursued are established by law. The law shall establish under which conditions and to what extent a person who has damaged the living environment is obliged to provide compensation. The protection of animals from cruelty shall be regulated by law.”

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Benin

Benin

Constitution of the Republic of Benin (1990)

February 182014

Title II, Article 27:

“Every person has the right to a healthy, satisfying and lasting environment and has the duty to defend it.”

Title II, Article 27:

“The State shall watch over the protection of the environment.”

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São Tomé and Príncipe

São Tomé and Príncipe

Political Constitution of the Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (1975, rev. 1990)

February 182014

Part II, Title III, Article 48, Section 1:

“All have the right to housing and to a healthy environment and the duty to defend it.”

Part II, Title III, Article 50, Section 2:

“[I]t is incumbent upon the State to promote the public health which has as objectives the physical and mental well-being of the populations and their balanced fitting into the socio-ecological environment in which they live.”

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Guinea

Guinea

Fundamental Law of the Second Republic of Guinea (1990)

February 182014

Title II, Article 19:

“[The people of Guinea] shall have the right to the preservation of their heritage, culture and environment.”

*This provision was moved to Article 21 in the 2010 Constitution of Guinea, which included a more explicit environmental rights provision under Title II, Article 16: “Every person has the right to a healthy and lasting environment and the duty to defend it. The State sees to the protection of the environment.”

Title II, Article 16:

“The State sees to the protection of the environment.”

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Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Constitution of Nicaragua (1987)

February 182014

Title IV, Chapter 3, Article 60:

“Nicaraguans have the right to live in a healthy environment; it is the duty of the State to preserve, conserve and save the environment and natural resources.”

Title VI, Chapter 1, Article 102:

“The natural resources are national patrimony. The preservation of the environment, and the conservation, development and rational exploitation of the natural resources are responsibilities of the State.”

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South Korea

South Korea

Constitution of the Republic of Korea (1987)

October 42013

Chapter II, Article 35, Section 1:

“All citizens shall have the right to a healthy and pleasant environment. The State and all citizens shall endeavor to protect the environment.”

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Philippines

Philippines

Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines (1987)

October 22013

Article II, Section 16:

“The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.”

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Chile

Chile

Political Constitution of the Republic of Chile (1980)

October 22013

Chapter 3, Article 19, Section 8:

“The right to live in an environment free from contamination. It is the duty of the State to see to [it] that this right will not be affected and to guard the preservation of nature. The law can establish specific restrictions on the exercise of certain rights or freedoms in order to protect the environment.”

Chapter 3, Article 20:

“Anybody who, due to arbitrary or illegal actions or omissions, suffers privation, disturbance or threats in the legitimate exercise of the rights and guarantees established in Article 19 [including a “right to live in an environment that is free from contamination”] … (24) … may … approach the respective Court of Appeal which shall immediately adopt the measures that it deems necessary to re-establish the rule of law and to ensure the due protection of the affected person without prejudice to other rights which he/she might invoke before the competent authorities or courts. The action for the protection of fundamental rights (recurso de proteccion) shall always lie in the case of numeral 8 of Article 19, when the right to live in an environment free from contamination has been affected by an illegal act or omission imputable to an authority or specific person.”

Chapter 3, Article 19:

“The Constitution guarantees to all persons … … (8) The right to live in an environment that is free from contamination. It is the duty of the State to see to that this right will not be affected and to guard the preservation of nature.”

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Peru

Peru

Political Constitution of Peru (1979)

September 302013

Title III, Chapter 2, Article 123:

“Everyone has the right to live in healthy environment, ecologically balanced and suitable for the development of life and the preservation of the landscape and nature. Everyone has the duty to preserve that environment. The state is obliged to prevent and control environmental pollution.”*

*This provision was removed in the 1993 Political Constitution of Peru, which included the following environmental rights provision under Title I, Chapter I, Article 2, Section 22: “Every person has the right:…to peace, tranquility, enjoyment of leisure time and to rest, as well as to a balanced and appropriate environment for the development of his life.”

Title III, Chapter 2, Article 68:

“The State is obliged to promote the conservation of biological diversity and of the protected natural areas.”

Title III, Chapter 2, Article 69:

“The State promotes the sustainable development of the Amazonia by means of appropriate laws.”

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Spain

Spain

Spanish Constitution of 1978

September 302013

Part I, Chapter 3, Section 45, Article 1:

“Everyone has the right to enjoy an environment suitable for the development of the person, as well as the duty to preserve it.”

Part I, Chapter 3, Section 45, Article 2:

“The public authorities shall concern themselves with the rational use of all natural resources for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of life and protecting and restoring the environment …”
“The State shall protect, preserve and improve the environment for the benefit of the community.”

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Portugal

Portugal

Constitution of the Portuguese Republic (1976)

September 302013

Part I, Title II, Chapter 2, Article 52, Section 3:

“To all is conferred-personally or through associations that purport to defend the interests in issue-the right of popular action in the cases and under the conditions specified by law, including the right to advocate on behalf of the aggrieved party or parties … to promote the prevention, the suppression and the prosecution of offenses against … the preservation of the environment.”

Part I, Title III, Chapter 2, Article 66, Section 1:

“Everyone shall possess the right to a healthy and ecologically balanced human living environment and the duty to defend it.”

Part I, Title III, Chapter 2, Article 66, Section 1:

“In order to ensure enjoyment of the right to the environment within an overall framework of sustainable development, acting via appropriate bodies and with the involvement and participation of citizens, the state shall be charged with: a) Preventing and controlling pollution and its effects and the harmful forms of erosion; b) Conducting and promoting town and country planning with a view to a correct location of activities, balanced social and economic development and the enhancement of the landscape; c) Creating and developing natural and recreational reserves and parks and classifying and protecting landscapes and places, in such a way as to guarantee the conservation of nature and the preservation of cultural values and assets that are of historic or artistic interest; d) Promoting the rational use of natural resources, while safeguarding their ability to renew themselves and maintain ecological stability, with respect for the principle of inter-generational solidarity; e) Acting in cooperation with local authorities, promoting the environmental quality of rural settlements and urban life, particularly on the architectural level and as regards the protection of historic zones; f) Promoting the integration of environmental objectives into the various policies of a sectoral nature; g) Promoting environmental education and respect for environmental values; h) Ensuring that fiscal policy renders development compatible with the protection of the environment and the quality of life..”

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    Zambia

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    Fiji

    Solidarity Right

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    Haiti

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    Guatemala

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    Ghana

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    Gambia

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    Equatorial Guinea

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    El Salvador

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    Cambodia

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    Bangladesh

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    Afghanistan

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    Egypt

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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    Morocco

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    Tunisia

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    South Sudan

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    Jamaica

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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    Dominican Republic

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    Kenya

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    Turkmenistan

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    Kosovo

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    Maldives

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    Serbia

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    Montenegro

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    Colombia

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    Armenia

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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    Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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    Iraq

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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    Sudan

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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    Brazil

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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    Central African Republic

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    Mozambique

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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    Bulgaria

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    Ukraine

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  • Guyana

    Guyana

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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    Costa Rica

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    Côte d’Ivoire

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    Georgia

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    Hungary

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    Kyrgyz Republic

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    Romania

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    Bolivia

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    Timor-Leste

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    Greece

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    Indonesia

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    Togo

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    Turkey

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    Congo

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    Senegal

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    Croatia

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    Czech Republic

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Mexico

    Mexico

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Mongolia

    Mongolia

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Slovakia

    Slovakia

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Venezuela

    Venezuela

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Latvia

    Latvia

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Macedonia

    Macedonia

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Burkina Faso

    Burkina Faso

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right

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  • Seychelles

    Seychelles

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Chad

    Chad

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Cameroon

    Cameroon

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Azerbaijan

    Azerbaijan

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right

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  • Uganda

    Uganda

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Finland

    Finland

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Norway

    Norway

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Argentina

    Argentina

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Belgium

    Belgium

    Solidarity Right

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  • Ethiopia

    Ethiopia

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Moldova

    Moldova

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Belarus

    Belarus

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Ecuador

    Ecuador

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Russian Federation

    Russian Federation

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • South Africa

    South Africa

    Solidarity Right

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  • Angola

    Angola

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Cape Verde

    Cape Verde

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Mali

    Mali

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Niger

    Niger

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Paraguay

    Paraguay

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Slovenia

    Slovenia

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Benin

    Benin

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • São Tomé and Príncipe

    São Tomé and Príncipe

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Guinea

    Guinea

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Nicaragua

    Nicaragua

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • South Korea

    South Korea

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Philippines

    Philippines

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Chile

    Chile

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Peru

    Peru

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Spain

    Spain

    Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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  • Portugal

    Portugal

    Procedural Right, Solidarity Right, Statement of Public Policy

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