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Angola

Constitutional Law of the Republic of Angola (1992)

Title II, Article 24, Section 1:

“All citizens shall have the right to live in a healthy and unpolluted environment.”

*This provision was moved to Article 39, Section 1 in the 2010 Constitution of the Republic of Angola, which added the phrase “…and the duty to defend and preserve it.”

Title II, Article 24, Section 2:

“The State shall take the requisite measures to protect the environment and national species of flora and fauna throughout the national territory and maintain ecological balance.”

*This provision was moved to Article 39, Section 2 in the 2010 Constitution of the Republic of Angola, which added the phrase “ensure the correct location of economic activities and the rational development and use of all natural resources, within the context of sustainable development, respect for the rights of future generations and the preservation of species. .”

Article 39, Section 3:

“Acts that endanger or damage conservation of the environment shall be punishable by law.”

Article 43:

“Citizens shall have the right to contest and take legal action against any acts that violate their rights as set out in the present Constitutional Law and other legislation.” 

*This provision was moved to Article 74 (Right to popular action) in the 2010 Constitution of the Republic of Angola, which changed the phrase to state, “Every citizen, either individually or through associations representing specific interests, shall have the right to take legal action in the cases and under the terms established by law, with the aim of annulling acts which are harmful to … the environment.”